Germanium - Wikipedia

Germanium is a chemical element wi seembol Ge an atomic nummer 32. It is a lustrous, haird, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically seemilar tae its group neighbors tin an silicon.Purified germanium is a semiconductor, wi an appearance maist seemilar tae elemental silicon.Lik silicon, germanium naiturally reacts an furms complexes wi oxygen in naitur.

Germanium | Ge (Element) - PubChem

When germanium is doped with arsenic, gallium, or other elements, it is used as a transistor element in thousands of electronic applications. The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor. Germanium is also finding many other applications including use as an alloying agent, as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps, and as a catalyst.

Refractive index of Ge (Germanium) - Li-200K

Germanium, Ge Germanium is a popular optical material for infrared wavelengths. Ge optical components (lenses, filters, beamsplitters etc.) are used in thermal imaging, CO 2 lasers, night vision systems and other applications in mid-wave infrared (MWIR) …

Germanium - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia Reader

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin.Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.

A four-qubit germanium quantum processor | Nature

Mar 24, 2021· Extensive studies of various materials have led to demonstrations of two-qubit logic in gallium arsenide 5, silicon 6,7,8,9,10,11,12 and germanium 13. …

Germanium Manufacturers & Suppliers, China germanium ...

germanium manufacturer/supplier, China germanium manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese germanium manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on …

1.4 Global perspective on critical commodities: country ...

Importantly, projected annual demand in 2030 for gallium, indium, germanium, neodymium, platinum and tantalum all exceed current annual production (European Commission, 2010). Projected demand in 2030 is proportionately lower for silver, cobalt, palladium, titanium and …

Germanium - SinoSanTech

Germanium Oxide. Germanium Oxide (GeO2) is a pre-cursor to the metallic form of germanium. As a white powder, it is used directly as a catalyst in the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic or converted to germane gas (GeH4) for the semiconductor industry.

WebElements Periodic Table » Germanium » compounds information

Element reactions. This section lists some binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and some other compounds of germanium. For each compound, a formal oxidation number for germanium is given, but the usefulness of this number is limited for p -block elements in particular.

WebElements Periodic Table » Germanium » the essentials

Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.4. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral germanium is [ Ar ]. 3d10. 4s2. 4p2 and the term symbol of germanium is 3P0. Your user agent does not support the HTML5 Audio element. Germanium is a gray-white semi-metal, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle ...

Sejarah Penemuan Germanium, Gallium, dan Scandium

Aug 07, 2014· Sejarah Penemuan Germanium, Gallium, dan Scandium. Germanium berasal dari bahasa latin Germania yang artinya Jerman. Germanium ditemukan relatif terlambat dalam sejarah kimia, karena sangat sedikit mengandung mineral dalam konsentrasi tinggi. Germanium peringkat kelimapuluh di dekat kelimpahan relatif dari unsur-unsur dalam kerak bumi.

GALLIUM | Definition of GALLIUM by Oxford Dictionary on ...

'The fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated.' 'Rorrer's lab aims to incorporate elements such as silicon, germanium, titanium, and gallium into the diatoms' silica shells.'

Germanium - chemicool.com

Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation. Germanium also has the unusual property that (like water) it expands as it freezes. Four other elements expand when they freeze; silicon, bismuth, antimony and gallium. Uses of Germanium. The most common use of …

Gallium - Wikipedia

Gallium is a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Discovered by French chemist Paul-Èmile Lecoq De Boisbaudran in 1875, Gallium is in group 13 of the periodic table, and has similarities to the other metals of the group (aluminium, indium, and thallium).. Elemental gallium is a soft, silvery metal at standard temperature and pressure.In its liquid state, it becomes ...

Template:Periodic table (32 columns, micro)/testcases ...

Relevant templates. Sandboxing overview: - in a box {{Periodic table (32 columns, micro)/sandbox}} - green{{Periodic table (32 columns, micro)/testcases}}Group 3 (2021)-- IUPAC WG preferred 2021-- enwiki pre 2021, split d-block-- IUPAC WG, introduced

Why is titanium and gallium would not be most similar ...

Jun 05, 2014· Titanium and gallium are both metals with a silvery appearance. They are most dissimilar in that titanium is a hard metal and gallium is a soft metal. ...

WebElements Periodic Table » Germanium » reactions of elements

Reaction of germanium with air. The surface of lumps of germanium is protected by a very thin layer of germanium dioxide, GeO 2. It is more reactive than silicon, which is immediately above germanium in the periodic table, but not by much. At red heat, germanium reacts with oxygen in air to from germanium dioxide. Ge (s) + O 2 (g) → GeO 2 (s)

Metals and Alloys | Products made by Indium Corporation

From the mine to product packaging, we set the standard for the processing of indium, germanium, gallium and tin. Quality is assured because we control the process from the very first step. Our products are used in the production of alkaline dry cell batteries, flat panel liquid crystal displays (LCD), optical fibers, photovoltaic devices, III ...

US4994892A - Aluminum germanium ohmic contacts to gallium ...

Ohmic contacts are attached to n-type Gallium Arsenide with an alloy of Aluminum-Germanium. The contact is prepared by depositing by evaporation a sequence of 400 Angstroms of Germanium, 300 Angstroms of Nickel, and 2000 Angstroms of Aluminum and subsequent alloying.

Amazing - What Gallium does to an Aluminium Can - YouTube

Liquid Gallium metal Vs Aluminium or Aluminum. Watch what happens if you put Gallium onto aluminium. I had to sand down the surface of the can to get it to w...

Refractive index of GaN (Gallium nitride) - Kawashima

Optical constants of GaN (Gallium nitride) Kawashima et al. 1997: thin film; n,k 0.131-0.919 µm

Germanium | Precious Metal Purchase

Our Germanium Sell Price: $915 per half kilogram. Our germanium is sold in half kilogram bar form and wrapped in security packaging with an indication of content, purity, and serial number. Our germanium tests at 99.9% purity and comes with an assay certificate. When selling back to us, the original security seals must be intact, otherwise an ...

Tellurium Dioxide - Sino Santech

Tellurium Dioxide. Tellurium Dioxide is a solid oxide of tellurium, which is pure white color with purity of 99.99%. 99.9% Tellurium Dioxide is little yellowish powder compared with 99.99% Tellurium Dioxide due to the higher content of heavy metals content.

MINOR METALS MARKET REPORT 19/01: Gallium jumps; germanium …

Jan 19, 2018· MINOR METALS MARKET REPORT 19/01: Gallium jumps; germanium, selenium, indium up; manganese dips An overview of the minor metals markets and the reasons for any price moves. Email this article

Refractive index of Ge (Germanium) - Aspnes

Germanium, Ge Germanium is a popular optical material for infrared wavelengths. Ge optical components (lenses, filters, beamsplitters etc.) are used in thermal imaging, CO 2 lasers, night vision systems and other applications in mid-wave infrared (MWIR) …

Strategic Metals | Kitco

Oct 08, 2021· Kitco.com: Strategic Metals – drivers of our lives in the 21st century, be it in electronics, mobility or sustainable energy. Strategic Metals include rare earth elements as well as specialty metals used in LEDs, magnets, electric motors, sensors and many other components used in smartphones, flat screens, cars, and our homes. Now they are becoming available for physical investment ...

Asian Metal - Gallium prices, news and research

Gallium oxide; 99.99% Zhuzhou Hongyilong Industry Co., Ltd. Sell; Ge raw materials; Unwrought raw materails, >5 % germanium content Joint Stock Company Germanium; Buy; Germanium lump; Unwrought metallic germanium lump, 80-100 % Ge content Joint Stock Company Germanium; Buy; GeO2; Crude, technical germanium dioxide, low quality Joint Stock ...

Chapter 1.10 - Miscellaneous Etchants

For VLSI aluminum etching, there is available a pre-mixed phosphoric/acetic acid mixture. Etch rate: ~ 100 Å/sec at 50ºC. Corrosive. Avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing.

Semiconductors | AMERICAN ELEMENTS

Semiconductor Materials Group IV Semiconductors. The group IV elements carbon, silicon, and germanium are all semiconductors in their pure form. The most widely used semiconductor material is crystalline silicon, notable for its useful functional temperature range as well as its abundance and consequent low raw-material cost, and found as the substrate for most integrated circuits as well as ...

Gallium Oxide - Sino Santech

Gallium Oxide . Gallium Oxide is odorless fine white powder, insoluble in water. It is an inorganic compound with the formula Ga2O3. Its most stable structure is P-type crystal. Gallium oxide is a promising ultra-wide-bandgap semiconductor for power electronics applications because of its outstanding breakdown field strength.

WebElements Periodic Table » Germanium » properties of ...

Aug 02, 2018· Compound properties. Element reactions. Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.4. The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral germanium is [ Ar ]. 3d10. 4s2. 4p2 and the term symbol is 3P0. Schematic electronic configuration of germanium. The Kossel shell structure of germanium.

CHINA GERMANIUM SNAPSHOT: Market strengthens amid …

Aug 02, 2021· CHINA GERMANIUM SNAPSHOT: Market strengthens amid limited supply Key data from Fastmarkets' pricing session in China on Friday July 30. Key drivers Germanium prices in China moved up on Friday July 30 with downstream buyers accepting higher offers from producers. Producers were reluctant to sell the material and issued higher offers due to ...